IC Engine

Internal Combustion Engine :). Who don’t know about it even non technical person have good knowledge about ic engine. As a Mechanical Engineer you should have better knowledge about IC Engine. IC Engine is large subject in Mechanical Engineering.

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction of a fuel with an oxidizer creates gases of high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an internal combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement, for example by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself.

Thrust is the force which moves an aircraft through the air. Thrust is used to overcome the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of a rocket. Thrust is generated by the engines of the aircraft through some kind of propulsion system.

How Internal Engine Works ?

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Combustion, also known as burning, is the basic chemical process of releasing energy from a fuel and air mixture.  In an internal combustion engine (ICE), the ignition and combustion of the fuel occurs within the engine itself. The engine then partially converts the energy from the combustion to work. The engine consists of a fixed cylinder and a moving piston. The expanding combustion gases push the piston, which in turn rotates the crankshaft. Ultimately, through a system of gears in the powertrain, this motion drives the vehicle’s wheels.

There are two kinds of internal combustion engines currently in production: the spark ignition gasoline engine and the compression ignition diesel engine. Most of these are four-stroke cycle engines, meaning four piston strokes are needed to complete a cycle. The cycle includes four distinct processes: intake, compression, combustion and power stroke, and exhaust.

Spark ignition gasoline and compression ignition diesel engines differ in how they supply and ignite the fuel.  In a spark ignition engine, the fuel is mixed with air and then inducted into the cylinder during the intake process. After the piston compresses the fuel-air mixture, the spark ignites it, causing combustion. The expansion of the combustion gases pushes the piston during the power stroke. In a diesel engine, only air is inducted into the engine and then compressed. Diesel engines then spray the fuel into the hot compressed air at a suitable, measured rate, causing it to ignite.

Syllabus of IC Engine

Introduction: Basic components and terminology of IC engines, working of four stroke/two stroke – petrol/diesel engine, classification and application of IC engines, engine performance and emission parameters

Fuel Air Cycles and Actual Cycles: Assumptions for fuel–air cycles, Reasons for variation of specific heats of gases, change of internal energy and enthalpy during a process with variable specific heats, isentropic expansion with variable specific heats, effect of variable specific heats on Otto, Diesel and Dual cycle, dissociation, comparison of air standard and fuel air cycles, effect of operating variables, comparison of air standard and actual cycles, effect of time loss, heat loss and exhaust loss in Petrol and Diesel engines, valve and port timing diagrams

Combustion: Combustion equations, stoichiometric air fuel ratio, enthalpy of formation, adiabatic flame temperature, determination of calorific values of fuels – calorimeter*- Bomb and Junkers gas calorimeter

Fuels and its supply system for SI and CI engine: Important qualities of IC engine fuels, rating of fuels, Carburation, mixture requirement for different loads and speeds, simple carburetor and its working, types of carburetors, MPFI, types of injection systems in CI engine, fuel pumps and injectors, types of nozzles, spray formation

Ignition and Governing System: Battery and magneto ignition system, spark plug, firing order, quality, quantity & hit and miss governing

Supercharging: Need for supercharging, Effect of supercharging, types of supercharger, methods of supercharging, thermodynamic analysis of supercharged engine cycle, limitations of supercharging, turbocharging

Combustion in SI and CI Engines: Stages of combustion in SI engines, abnormal combustion and knocking in SI engines, factors affecting knocking, effects of knocking, control of knocking, combustion chambers for SI engines, Stages of combustion in CI engines, detonation in C.I. engines, factors affecting detonation, controlling detonation, combustion chamber for SI and CI engine

Engine Lubrication and Cooling: Lubrication of engine components, Lubrication system – wet sump and dry sump, crankcase ventilation, Types of cooling systems – liquid and air cooled, comparison of liquid and air cooled systems

Measurement and Testing of IC engines: Measurement of indicated power, brake power, fuel consumption and emission, Measurement of friction power by Willan’s Line Method* and Morse Test*, calculation of brake thermal efficiency, brake power and brake specific fuel consumption of IC Engines, variable compression ratio engines, heat balance sheet of IC Engines

Engine Emission and their control: Air pollution due to IC engines, Euro I to VI norms, HC, CO and NOx emission, catalytic convertor

Application of diesel engines in power field, merit and demerits of diesel engine power plants, layout of diesel engine power plants

 

Books for IC Engine

  1. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals by John B. Heywood
  2. Internal Combustion Engine by V Ganeshan
  3. Internal Combustion Engine by M.L.Mathur and R.P.Sharma
  4. Fundamentals of Internal Combustion engine by H.N.Gupta
  5. Internal Combustion Engines 2 nd Edition by Colin Ferguson and Allan Kirkpatrick

Download Ebooks  : –

IC Engine by RK Rajput

Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals by John B. Heywood

 

MCQs for IC Engine

IC Engine MCQ with Answers